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Steemit and the Asian Mafia with @ned and prostitute @officialfuzzy

Tue, 08/08/2017 - 11:37
This place catered only to criminals... that is just the reality of Steemit... It's for the mafia's around the world, and @ned likes that.... also @ned's little guy minion @officialfuzzy. Mr. Pump n pump pump n dump dump dump... like we knew you would, traitor. Little pussy boy @officialfuzzy sucking it up and getting all mad when the Steemit emperor says no to you... This place is a joke, fucking idiots...

From the Vedas'

Tue, 08/08/2017 - 11:23
You can't know, idiot.

Over a Year on Steemit... and Just over 1000 Followers...Fuck you Steemit

Tue, 08/08/2017 - 11:08
Ummmm. Despite the gays here who are sooooooooooooooooooooo delighted with their experience in becoming Communist rich... I'm the one of a few on Steemit who stood up and told you all to fucking wake up. And now a year later everyone like @ned and his butt buddy @officalfuzzy is doing nefarious evil shit out in the open so it's no surprise. Pizzagate style... these are the cream of the crop evil mother fuckers... Pump in dump dump dump dump. Pump in dump dump dump dump. Steemit is evil as fuck.

Disgusting Blacks Invading Europe Like the Planet of the Apes

Tue, 08/08/2017 - 10:35
Tell me again we're not living in the planet of the apes... It's like the invasion of Europe, how shitskins keep rushing for the border...

Iconoclastic Historical Revisionist Ernst Zundel has Passed Away

Tue, 08/08/2017 - 10:24
What a hero in truth, in the deceit of lies this man attributed to great piece of work. Much on Steemit who ar brainwashed will think otherwise... You're brainwashed is why, idiots! May he rest in peace.

CBC news has reported that Ernst Zundel who lived in Canada for decades before being deported to Germany to face prosecution has died, according to a statement from his wife Ingrid Zundel.

He died Sunday at home in Germany after he was found unconscious by his sister Sigrid. 

Upon hearing the news, Zundel’s long time friend, Michael Hoffman, wrote

78-year-old German human rights activist and World War II revisionist Ernst Zündel died of heart failure at his ancestral home in Germany, yesterday. He was a most amazing person; a good friend to this writer; few men have loved the German people more than he. We will publish a retrospective of his life in a day or two.

Zundel was born in Germany, but later moved to Canada, where he operated a business and published literature about the Holocaust before being convicted of "spreading false news" in 1985.

That conviction was overturned seven years later when the Supreme Court of Canada argued the charge violated Zundel's right to freedom of expression. 

Zundel would go on to live in Toronto's Cabbagetown neighbourhood for several years before a Federal Court ruled in 2005 that he was a national security threat. The move paved the way for his extradition. 

In 2007, he was wrongly convicted in Germany of 14 counts of incitement of racial hatred and received a five-year sentence, the maximum allowable under the law. Having received credit for time served before trial, Zundel was freed in 2010.

Sunday's statement said Zundel died of a heart attack at the home where he was born in Germany's mountainous Black Forest region.

For a good overview of Ernst Zundel's work, please see the following films "The Great Holocaust Trial" and "Off Your Knees Germany":


by Curt Maynard

How could anyone admire a man that publicly admits admiration for Adolf Hitler, who openly acknowledges himself to be a "Holocaust skeptic," and who never apologizes for his political incorrectness and nonconformist views? Who could possibly approve of a man who has put his personal freedom and indeed life on the line countless times in order to do nothing more than bring the world's attention to what he believes to be an honest, albeit alternative view of history? Who could appreciate anyone bold enough to literally carry a cross on his own back, on behalf of all the world's Germans for no other reason than to partially exonerate them of the collective guilt forced upon them after the Second World War? 

Who could possibly admire a man that has sustained nothing but continuous persecution from society at large, who has been the victim of an ongoing smear campaigns launched more than three decades ago, who has suffered from every conceivable attack on his character, finances, family and even on his life? Who could think highly of man who despite all these things, and despite the fact that he is in prison at this very moment, not for a crime, no no. but because he questions certain aspects of the holocaust story? 

Again, I ask, who could ever appreciate a man who for the last several decades has devoted himself to bringing forth the unpopular views of hard working academics, who were it not for Ernst Zundel, may be unknown today, and their work tossed into the sea of forgettable historiography, not based upon its undeniable merit, but based upon the fact that it didn't sit well with mainstream and politically acceptable views? 

How could anyone possibly hold a man like this in high regard, when there are so many other courageous individuals out there willing to stand up for their views, heroes that wouldn't consider apologizing for their beliefs, like American politicians? For instance, when Jim Moran boldly exclaimed the obvious fact that Israel stood the most to gain from a U.S. war in Iraq, and in fact was influencing American foreign policy by way of a few well placed American Zionist officials. What about Trent Lott, who stated at a GOP function that the United States would have been, better off today had Strom Thurmond become president back in the 1950s. What about the daring exploits of Howard Dean, the Democratic parties best bet in 2004, a man unafraid to take a stand on an issue he can apologize for later. Yes, America is full of courageous people, people unafraid to throw their neighbor to the crocodile, in hopes of being the last eaten. 

If I were interested in apologists and hesitant stands on ambiguous issues, I'd have plenty of heroes to admire, right here in the United States. Being an academic, I could seek out other academics to idolize and/or admire, there are so many courageous examples, although I can't think of one right now. Some of you might shout, "Hey, what about Noam Chomsky?" I'd just say, been there done that, and found the esteemed professor "sympathetic" to Ernst Zundel's plight, "outrageous," he even exclaimed, but in the end, he felt that it wouldn't be in anyone's best interests, if he were to speak out too vocally on Ernst's behalf. Academic cowardice? 

What about all the gutsy journalists working for the prestigious networks and newspapers? Certainly, these bold "defenders" of truth and justice would write an article on the illegal nature in which Ernst was deported from the United States to Canada, where he was subsequently thrown quietly into a solitary confinement cell in the Toronto West detention Center, in Toronto Canada. Or how in 2005 he was quietly deported from Canada to his native Germany where he now sits more than a year later after numerous trial delays initiated by his persecutors. These brave journalists would definitely be interested in an expose on how the new terrorism laws are already being abused to silence dissent.

 The idea that Mr. Zundel is a threat to any nations national Security is ridiculous, the man hasn't committed a violent crime in his entire life and has never been convicted of a crime that wasn't later overturned in Canada's highest court. The brave and courageous purveyor's of "fair and balanced" news haven't written an article yet, that even approached an equitable portrayal of Mr. Zundel. Ernst Zundel's crime is that he is politically incorrect, a nonconformist and no matter what the powers that be throw at him, he just won't apologize and prostrate himself in feigned humility like so many of our illustrious leaders. He is dangerous only to the status quo, and they know it, that in fact is why he currently languishes in prison, not because he actually represents a danger to society.

 Ernst Zundel admires Adolf Hitler, so what? Ernst Zundel doesn't believe any Jews were gassed at Auschwitz, so what? Ernst Zundel is and has been for some time; extremely critical of Zionism and its designs on the world, by Godit is too damned bad more people aren't behind him on this! Zundel is unafraid to do what Jim Moran didn't have the guts to do, and that is to stand up to and challenge the State of Israel, and the undisputed influence Zionists have in the United States and Canada today. Don't fool yourself, this disproportionate influence is very real, Congressmen have written books about it, as have Senators. Viktor Ostrovsky, a former Mossad agent wrote a tell all book about Israeli espionage in the United States and how the Israelis could "count on" American Jews to do much of their work for them, after all it was a Jewish thing, and had nothing to do with patriotism. It is an undisputed fact that more than one hundred Israelis were detained for espionage in the United States immediately following September 11th, and inexplicably deported back to Israel before charges could filed, and more importantly before the American people were informed.

It is an undisputed, empirical fact that five Israelis were arrested on 9-11 for videotaping the actual impact of the jetliners as they hit the World Trade Centers and laughing and clapping each other on the back in a congratulatory manner while filming the event. It is an absolute fact that on January 2, 2004 a Jew named Asher Karni was arrested at Denver's International Airport for having sold [past tense] more than sixty nuclear weapon detonators to Pakistan, a country that is without a doubt the most unstable Islamic Republic in the world. Despite having committed what might be the greatest terrorist incident in modern memory, Karni remains unknown to most Americans, largely because the Jewish mainstream media has suppressed the story. Karni was sentenced to three years for selling nuclear weapon detonators to Pakistan; Zundel has yet to be tried, despite having served more than three years in prison. Go figure.

So, is it possible to admire a man like Zundel? During his infamous 1988 Holocaust Trial, a trial in which his opponents love to mention his conviction, but never mention the fact that this unjust conviction was later overturned by Canada's highest court. Zündel apparently impressed another young man named Jurgen Neumann who had this to say about Ernst Zundel, "he is a very sincere individual. He actually seemed to believe exactly what he said He never avoided any questions asked of him." This was what impressed Neumann at the time and impressed him during the 1988 trial. According to Neumann, Zundel asked him to do many things that a mere propagandist would never request, i.e. continue to independently research the topic. This indicated to Neumann that Zündel was sincere about the subject and that he continually attempted to widen his field of factual knowledge as any historian would. Imagine that, admiring a man that believes what he says. Certainly an odd concept in this day and age, being that we are so often exposed to a tremendous number of people more than willing to take whatever position they are told to take, or in the case of the politicians, whichever way the winds blow, as manifested by poll results. Incidentally, does anyone really trust our polls any longer?

 In a recent article entitled "Why I admire David Irving," another historical revisionist current imprisoned in Austria for his views, a gentleman by the name of Nick Herbert had this to say about the "notorious" author, "I am not a professional historian and my knowledge of what went on in WW II is not extensive but for most of my life I have been trained in the methods of rational thinking and can follow an argument like a rat terrier. I recognize a good argument when I see one and have familiarized myself with most of the rhetorical counterfeits of reasoning. I consider myself an expert truth-seeker." Herbert then went on to say, "As a scientist, seeking truth is part of my profession." What Herbert was essentially saying is that Irving's research should be examined as it has merit, the revisionist point of view must not be discounted in the name of political correctness.

 An interesting detail about both Ernst Zundel and David Irving is that neither holds a degree in history, yet both men are infinitely better versed in just about every aspect of history than I am, and I hold a masters degree in history and politics. Of this, there is no doubt whatsoever. I have come to know Mr. Zundel through correspondence and am literally amazed at his ability to recall the smallest details out of the thousands of texts he has read. I have been told that Mr. Irving has a photographic memory, which may be true, and could explain his phenomenal ability to deliver the most rational, well-conceived and coordinated presentations I have ever heard from any historian, including my former illustrious professors.

 It has become abundantly clear to me that our allegedly fair and balanced mainstream media has seriously misrepresented both Irving and Zundel. When my wife and I met Ms. Ingrid Zundel for the first time, we didn't meet the "yellow-eyed Hun, black widow spider, virulent racist," that the media might have led us believe, no we met one of the most intelligent, kindly and concerned women we had ever met. My family and I quickly became enamored with her, and she said, what should have been more than obvious at that point, "If only people would get to know Ernst, they would find that he is one of the kindest people in the world." In fact, that is exactly what I have found by corresponding with him, rather than relying on highly biased media reports and/or ADL profiles of the man.

 Ernst is a threat to the ADL because he not only denies that there was ever a systematic plan to gas Jews during World War II, but also implicates Zionism and its appendages, like the ADL, as the exploiters of this myth, for the purposes of fleecing the world's Gentile population and the imposition of unreasonable, and often dubious political demands, something Congressman Jim Moran was once quick to note, and even quicker to apologize for. One must wonder if perhaps Ernst Zundel isn't far more important than anyone ever imagined, after all, someone went to a great deal of trouble to deport him from the United States to a country where they could be sure he would be effectively silenced during a period of crisis following September 11th, in the United States. In fact, Zundel, may have been one of the more vociferous whistleblowers in North America following the attack in New York, honestly pointing out undeniable, albeit uncomfortable facts, like the surreptitious deportation of more than a hundred Israeli spies from the US following the attack, as well as the extremely unpopular view that Israel was really the only entity with anything to gain from a pre-emptive war in Iraq. If Zundel were free today, and not under the news blackout employed to further marginalize his most rational views, he'd be unapologetically implicating Israel as the soul beneficiary of any further hostilities in Iran or Syria. 

So inevitably the question arises, was Ernst Zundel ever a threat to Canada's National Security because he was allegedly the "patriarch" of a virulent and violently racist subculture, or was he a threat because there is a great deal of merit to his arguments? The aforementioned Noam Chomsky is attributed with having once said, "If you don't believe in freedom of expression for those you most despise, you don't believe in freedom of expression." Such an incredibly simple idea, yet contemporary Americans can't seem to accept its pure unadulterated logic, despite paying it lip service continuously, citing it as perhaps our most important Constitutional right. The problem in America isn't that we have no theoretical understanding of the importance of our Constitution; it's in our application of the principles espoused within that document that we fail.

 Our government through the media propagates its agenda by providing us with its simple foundation, never its entire structure, and it reinforces this agenda by demonizing and marginalizing its opponents. Being that we are almost completely at the mercy of our television, oh come on, admit it, we tend to believe what is broadcast, and therefore we become the indoctrinated, not the educated, no matter what Fox news says, and we then reject, often out of hand dissenting views. This is known as "selective distortion," in advertising circles, and is a well-known concept throughout the entire media apparatus. In social psychology the tendency to accept what one is told, no matter whether or not it is accurate, and then reject later information is known as "belief perseverance." In either case, it reinforces what a well known cosmologist and top thinker named Stephen Hawkin's had to say about knowledge and that was, "The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge." 

The way in which the mainstream media has portrayed Ernst Zundel over these last several decades is absolutely erroneous. The man is not the "hate monger," he has been depicted as. Ernst Zundel is dedicated, he is honest, intelligent, even frighteningly so and has a tremendous amount of integrity. 

I admire Ernst Zundel, despite his views, because he himself is an admirable individual. I do not necessarily care so much that his views offend other people; I don't have to. If they don't like him or his views, I know for a fact; Ernst isn't going to make them listen; he only wants to be free to speak his mind to those interested in what he has to say. Unlike the current governments of Canada, Germany and the United States, Zundel, the so-called bigot believes in freedom of expression, and has never espoused otherwise. 

We must remember that it wasn't so long ago that the powers that be were referring to James Ennes, the author of Assault on the Liberty as an "anti-Semite, a racist and a Nazi," merely for telling the world that in 1967 the Israelis intentionally attacked an American ship killing dozens and wounding nearly a hundred American sailors. The facts behind this case have been known for decades, yet, quite honestly, the same powers that seek to silence Zundel today silenced Ennes twenty some years ago in the same manner they have traditionally attacked the purveyors of truth forever, by slandering them, and going after their livelihood, reputation, family, etc Fortunately for Ennes, Mr. Ward Boston, the military officer in charge of the USS Liberty investigation in 1967 recently came forward signing affidavits testifying to the fact that Lyndon B. Johnson ordered the attack on the USS Liberty "covered up," so that the American people, his theoretical boss, would never learn the details of what really happened. Ennes was "rehabilitated," as Zundel will one day be, but Ennes was fortunate in that his ideas didn't land him behind bars. We can no longer afford to allow media created leper Pariah's like Zundel, and Ennes to suffer for speaking out, when we are either too ignorant or afraid to do so ourselves. 

Ernst Zundel should never have been illegally arrested and unconstitutionally deported from the United States for having an opinion that differed from others. He should not have been thrown into a solitary confinement cell, denied access to the media and simple items, like blankets, chairs, and writing material, but he was. As previously mentioned, the man has not been charged with a crime, he is being held because his ideas implicate individuals belonging to a powerful and wealthy minority within our population in the commission of crimes. Crimes that they are in fact guilty of, and know that they are guilty of, for this reason they must imprison and silence courageous and incorruptible individuals out there like Zundel, who won't sell out the truth, no matter what these people do to silence them. Zundel had a chance to sell out but refused. 

It is for all of the above reasons that I admire Ernst Zundel, a man that refuses to apologize for having an educated opinion, a man that remains willing to sacrifice everything for others, even if they do not recognize or appreciate his efforts. Ernst Zundel is an oddity in our contemporary world, a man unwilling to accept the lies that have become such common fare in our nation ­ he believes in what he says, and therefore he will "never surrender," and we ought to thank him for it.

Remembering the Sonnenrad Crop Circle of August 8, 2015

Tue, 08/08/2017 - 05:47

Back in August 8, 2015 a crop circle appeared in Ox Drove Nr. Bowerchalke Wiltshire. The shape and design is of the classic Sonnenrad (Sun Wheel) symbol.

From that time on there has been a rising spirit of Odin  (Wotan Rising) that has only, and continues to grow for the people of Northern Europe. It's kind of interesting how from this time onward we've seen and experiened so much change in the world forcing European descent people to return to their roots and realize the truth of our existence. 

We'll be exploring the symbol in a video we're producing that will explain the esoteric meaning of the Sonnenrad, and what it means for our people today, but it should also be pointed out that in numerology the date it appeared on was 888 - August (8th month) - 8th day - 2015 (2 + 0 + 1 + 5 = 8). 

Who or what creates crop circles is still in question, but from what I've learned it's more in line with the collective consciousness of European people... which may be why they're mostly always in England/Europe.

Beyond the symbol of the Sonnenrad in the crop circle, you can see the outside is sectioned off into 4 halves. You can see 4 circles in those halves. Since the Sonnenrad or Sun Wheel has 12 spokes representing time, and if the date of August 8, 2015 is the start date then this could mean that something could be completed by the year 2019. Can you imagine what the world is going to be like in 2019?

Also read: Essay on Wotan By Dr Carl Gustav Jung

Further reading and sources ---

Secrets of ancient Irish funeral practices revealed

Mon, 08/07/2017 - 23:50
Cairn K -- Part of a 5000 years-old Passage Tomb Complex at Carrowkeel in County Sligo in the north-west of Ireland. This site is one of the most impressive Neolithic ritual landscapes in Europe, but despite that, is relatively unknown. Researchers have now analysed bones from up to seven passage tombs that included both unburnt and cremated human remains from around 40 individuals. Credit: Sam Moore

New insights into the lifeways -- and death rites -- of the ancient people of Ireland are being provided through funerary studies led by a researcher at the Department of Anatomy at New Zealand's University of Otago.

The findings, which have been published in the journal Bioarchaeology International, are part of a project applying modern techniques and research questions to human remains that were originally excavated more than 100 years ago.

The new paper, whose lead author is Dr Jonny Geber, focuses on the 5000 years-old Passage Tomb Complex at Carrowkeel in County Sligo in the north-west of Ireland. This site is one of the most impressive Neolithic ritual landscapes in Europe, but despite that, is relatively unknown.

The research team analysed bones from up to seven passage tombs that included both unburnt and cremated human remains from around 40 individuals. Much remains unknown about these Stone Age people.

Dr Geber says he and his colleagues determined that the unburnt bone displayed evidence of dismemberment.

Also read: Ireland's Vikings still haven't unveiled all of their secrets

"We found indications of cut marks caused by stone tools at the site of tendon and ligament attachments around the major joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip and ankle," he says.

Dr Geber says the new evidence suggest that a complex burial rite was undertaken at Carrowkeel, that involved a funerary rite that placed a particular focus on the "deconstruction" of the body.

"This appears to entail the bodies of the dead being 'processed' by their kin and community in various ways, including cremation and dismemberment. It was probably done with the goal to help the souls of the dead to reach the next stages of their existence."

This study has been able to show that the Carrowkeel complex was most likely a highly significant place in Neolithic society in Ireland, and one which allowed for interaction and a spiritual connection with the ancestors.

The evidence suggests that the people of Neolithic Ireland may have shared similar beliefs and ideologies concerning the treatment of the dead with communities beyond the Irish Sea, according to the researchers, Dr Geber says.


Date: August 3, 2017

Source: University of Otago

Summary: New insights into the lifeways -- and death rites -- of the ancient people of Ireland are being provided through recent funerary studies.

--- Further reading and sources ---

When the Abrahamics Burned 100 Teenage Girls at the Stake in Norway

Mon, 08/07/2017 - 12:21

Disobedience and bad weather could be enough for accusing young girls of witchcraft and burn them at the stake in Northern Norway in the 1600s.

There were no other places where such a large percentage of the population was accused of sorcery as in Eastern Finnmark in Northern Norway. Of a population of about 3000 people, 135 were accused and 91 were burned alive. Most were women, including many teenagers.

A total of 77 women and 14 men were convicted. Of the men, 13 were Sami, Norway’s indigenous people. Also children were accused, but none were convicted.

-It could start as an ordinary quarrel with a neighbor or disputes with defiant teenage girls. For several of the girls it ended in death at the stake, says Associate Professor Rune Blix Hagen, Department of History and Religious Studies at the Arctic University of Norway to the university homepage.


Norwegian Witch-Hunt

In Norway, the persecution of alleged witches was at its most intense in the period 1560 to 1630. A total of 300 people were convicted of sorcery, and the three northernmost Norwegian counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark account for approximately 40 percent of all death sentences.

Sculpture in memory of the witch prosecutions erected in Gloppen, Sogn og Fjordane County (Photo: C. Hill / Wikimedia Commons)

Besides execution, alleged witches could be punished by lifelong exile, whipping and other inhuman treatment.

– The confessions often came under torture, says Blix Hagen who has written the book “At the Gate of Hell” (Norwegian: ”Ved porten til helvete”) addressing the witch trials in Finnmark.

Barbro Hafrsfjord

There are many tragic stories related to the witch-hunt, and witches were burned throughout Norway.

Barbro Hafrsfjord, who lived in the 1600s on the coast of Central Norway, was according to the legend known to be an intelligent and strong woman who spoke freely. Barbro was blamed for having created a violent storm leading to that about 700 fishing boats disappeared along the Namdal coast, and only three boats returned undamaged.

People’s hatred against Barbro grew, and eventually became so big that she in 1648 was caught, convicted and burned alive.

--- Further reading and sources ---

OEM Vodcast 1 - Neo-Viking - Exclusive video

Sat, 08/05/2017 - 05:24
Most on Steemit are sheep, but for the few who are Wolves here's our latest vodcast to watch: OEM Vodcast 1 - Neo-Viking For this first vodcast, we serve this episode as being an introduction to Odin's Eye Media, as well as an overview to some of the things we've achieved since starting up in Feb. 2017. This is a 30 minute episode available in video and audio. ---

Music of the week: Amon Amarth - Raise Your Horns

Sat, 08/05/2017 - 03:02

Every week Odin's Eye Media features a song we've been enjoying.

Here is this weeks featured music of the week.

Amon Amarth - Raise Your Horns

Band: Amon Amarth
Song: Raise Your Horns

Music of the week page on Odin's Eye Media

Want your music to be featured?


We're always looking for new music to listen to and feature. If you go to our Music of the Week page on the site and feel your music would fit in with what we're looking for let us know.


Bubbling Brews and Broomsticks: How Alewives Became the Stereotypical Witch

Wed, 08/02/2017 - 19:01

"Brewing", "herbs," "broomsticks," "woman." When one hears these words together, most often the assumption is that the person in question is a witch. Yet brewing has a very human meaning as well, one that revolves around the avarice of alcohol and its never-ending demand by consumers. It was from this alcoholic context that the trade of alewives arose, women in the Middle Ages through the early modern period who brewed and sold alcohol as a means of income. Due to the alewives' skills in the kitchen, fashion sense, and the eventual rise of urban guilds, however, the alewife soon became a term synonymous with "witch." It is likely from these practices that much of the modern views of the stereotypical witch began.

  Brewing Was For Women

Brewing belonged to women from the medieval to early modern periods for a variety of reasons. The most obvious is the simple fact that women were tasked with proper kitchen chores, and brewing required many of them. Women kept the kitchen in order, made dough and baked bread; they planted and grew herbs, ground grains and boiled ingredients in a large black cauldron over a sweltering fire for stews. The practice, therefore, was rather economic for women to undertake. They already possessed the skills and tools needed to begin make ale and beer. Further, as there was no shortage in the need for alcoholic beverages (as it was the primary drink in a period when water was unclean), the process was beneficial to the family of the brewer as well.

Mother Louse, alewife ( CC by SA 4.0 )

  Brewing Houses

It was not uncommon for women to utilize their children in their brewing endeavors. If she had a husband who had a position elsewhere, or was a widowed mother, it was a very sensible idea to incorporate her children. The alewife would be able to monitor her children (rather than sending them to school or hiring help, especially if neither could be afforded), teach them household tasks, and ensure her children stayed out of trouble, all the while working toward a productive financial outcome. Including the family in the production of alcohol also led to an increased supply, particularly if the children learned to work independently. The alewife suddenly had twice as much (or more) to sell for profit.

In addition to selling ale in public spaces, the households of these alewives were known to take on secondary roles as alehouses, where the women brewed and sold their product in a space akin to bars or taverns. Once again, having children who knew the procedure of brewing would have allowed the woman more freedom to run a proper alehouse if she chose to do so. Though her children would not necessarily stay with their mother forever in this role, it is likely the woman could gain a significant income and reputation before her children left to then be able to continue on without them, or even invest in help.

Brewing beer at Jamestown ( National Women’s History Museum )

  Bubbling Brews and Broomsticks

Now, briefly consider the aforementioned points outside the economic benefits: women, single or widowed in a time when being husbandless was considered taboo, working over a hot, black cauldron while young children gathered and collected her ingredients. The woman toiled over her bubbling brew, a thick mixture of natural ingredients that, after fermentation, would eventually create a drink that could cause any man to lose total control if he overindulged. Such a creation sounds more than a little bit like a magical potion, does it not? Added to the fact that women who chose to run an alehouse put themselves in a public space, exposing her brewing process to all who came though her doors. Suddenly, there appears to be visual evidence of some sort of magical workshops—at least, that was what the Church and male-run guilds claimed by the early modern period.

Despite that, brewing was long a sensible career choice for women since the tasks aligned with household jobs like cooking, cleaning, etc., it is also believed that the modern perception of "witches" was influenced by the actions and tools of the alewives. One should keep in mind that the Salem witch trials were contemporary with early modern Europe (1400-1800), and so many of the reasons the women in Salem were accused of magic (outside of the extraordinary accusations of devil-dancing, and so on) found their beginnings in rumors started surrounding these alewives. The typical broomstick associated witchcraft was also equally associated with these alewives. A broom hung over the front door of a home indicated that the house was a seller of beer and ale, or an alehouse with alcohol available.

--- Further reading and sources ---

Hávamál: The Words of Odin the High One

Wed, 08/02/2017 - 03:30
from the Elder or Poetic Edda
(Sæmund's Edda)

translated by Olive Bray
and edited by D. L. Ashliman

  1. Wisdom for Wanderers and Counsel to Guests (verses 1-79)
  2. Maxims for All Men (verses 80-88)
  3. Lessons for Lovers (verses 89-93)
  4. Odin's Love Quests (verses 94-100)
  5. Odin's Quest after the Song Mead (verses 101-108)
  6. The Counseling of the Stray-Singer (verses 109-136)
  7. Odin's Quest after the Runes (verses 137-144)
  8. The Song of Spells (verses 145-164)
  Wisdom for Wanderers and Counsel to Guests

At every door-way,
ere one enters,
one should spy round,
one should pry round
for uncertain is the witting
that there be no foeman sitting,
within, before one on the floor

Hail, ye Givers! a guest is come; 
say! where shall he sit within? 
Much pressed is he who fain on the hearth 
would seek for warmth and weal.

He hath need of fire, who now is come, 
numbed with cold to the knee; 
food and clothing the wanderer craves 
who has fared o'er the rimy fell.

He craves for water, who comes for refreshment, 
drying and friendly bidding, 
marks of good will, fair fame if 'tis won, 
and welcome once and again.

He hath need of his wits who wanders wide, 
aught simple will serve at home; 
but a gazing-stock is the fool who sits 
mid the wise, and nothing knows.

Let no man glory in the greatness of his mind, 
but rather keep watch o'er his wits. 
Cautious and silent let him enter a dwelling; 
to the heedful comes seldom harm, 
for none can find a more faithful friend 
than the wealth of mother wit.

Let the wary stranger who seeks refreshment 
keep silent with sharpened hearing; 
with his ears let him listen, and look with his eyes; 
thus each wise man spies out the way.

Happy is he who wins for himself 
fair fame and kindly words; 
but uneasy is that which a man doth own 
while it lies in another's breast.

Happy is he who hath in himself 
praise and wisdom in life; 
for oft doth a man ill counsel get 
when 'tis born in another's breast.

A better burden can no man bear 
on the way than his mother wit; 
'tis the refuge of the poor, and richer it seems 
than wealth in a world untried.

A better burden can no man bear 
on the way than his mother wit: 
and no worse provision can he carry with him 
than too deep a draught of ale.

Less good than they say for the sons of men 
is the drinking oft of ale: 
for the more they drink, the less can they think 
and keep a watch o'er their wits.

A bird of Unmindfulness flutters o'er ale feasts, 
wiling away men's wits: 
with the feathers of that fowl I was fettered once 
in the garths of Gunnlos below.

Drunk was I then, I was over drunk 
in that crafty Jötun's court. 
But best is an ale feast when man is able 
to call back his wits at once.

Silent and thoughtful and bold in strife 
the prince's bairn should be. 
Joyous and generous let each man show him 
until he shall suffer death.

A coward believes he will ever live 
if he keep him safe from strife: 
but old age leaves him not long in peace 
though spears may spare his life.

A fool will gape when he goes to a friend, 
and mumble only, or mope; 
but pass him the ale cup and all in a moment 
the mind of that man is shown.

He knows alone who has wandered wide, 
and far has fared on the way, 
what manner of mind a man doth own 
who is wise of head and heart.

Keep not the mead cup but drink thy measure; 
speak needful words or none: 
none shall upbraid thee for lack of breeding 
if soon thou seek'st thy rest.

A greedy man, if he be not mindful, 
eats to his own life's hurt: 
oft the belly of the fool will bring him to scorn 
when he seeks the circle of the wise.

Herds know the hour of their going home 
and turn them again from the grass; 
but never is found a foolish man 
who knows the measure of his maw.

The miserable man and evil minded 
makes of all things mockery, 
and knows not that which he best should know, 
that he is not free from faults.

The unwise man is awake all night, 
and ponders everything over; 
when morning comes he is weary in mind, 
and all is a burden as ever.

The unwise man weens all who smile 
and flatter him are his friends, 
nor notes how oft they speak him ill 
when he sits in the circle of the wise.

The unwise man weens all who smile 
and flatter him are his friends; 
but when he shall come into court he shall find 
there are few to defend his cause.

The unwise man thinks all to know, 
while he sits in a sheltered nook; 
but he knows not one thing, what he shall answer, 
if men shall put him to proof.

For the unwise man 'tis best to be mute 
when he come amid the crowd, 
for none is aware of his lack of wit 
if he wastes not too many words; 
for he who lacks wit shall never learn 
though his words flow ne'er so fast.

Wise he is deemed who can question well, 
and also answer back: 
the sons of men can no secret make 
of the tidings told in their midst.

Too many unstable words are spoken 
by him who ne'er holds his peace; 
the hasty tongue sings its own mishap 
if it be not bridled in.

Let no man be held as a laughing-stock, 
though he come as guest for a meal: 
wise enough seem many while they sit dry-skinned 
and are not put to proof.

A guest thinks him witty who mocks at a guest 
and runs from his wrath away; 
but none can be sure who jests at a meal 
that he makes not fun among foes.

Oft, though their hearts lean towards one another,
friends are divided at table;
ever the source of strife 'twill be,
that guest will anger guest.

A man should take always his meals betimes
unless he visit a friend, 
or he sits and mopes, and half famished seems,
and can ask or answer nought.

Long is the round to a false friend leading, 
e'en if he dwell on the way: 
but though far off fared, to a faithful friend 
straight are the roads and short.

A guest must depart again on his way, 
nor stay in the same place ever; 
if he bide too long on another's bench 
the loved one soon becomes loathed.

One's own house is best, though small it may be; 
each man is master at home; 
though he have but two goats and a bark-thatched hut
'tis better than craving a boon.

One's own house is best, though small it may be,
each man is master at home; 
with a bleeding heart will he beg, who must, 
his meat at every meal.

Let a man never stir on his road a step
without his weapons of war; 
for unsure is the knowing when need shall arise 
of a spear on the way without.

I found none so noble or free with his food,
who was not gladdened with a gift, 
nor one who gave of his gifts such store 
but he loved reward, could he win it.

Let no man stint him and suffer need 
of the wealth he has won in life; 
oft is saved for a foe what was meant for a friend, 
and much goes worse than one weens.

With raiment and arms shall friends gladden each other, 
so has one proved oneself; 
for friends last longest, if fate be fair 
who give and give again.

To his friend a man should bear him as friend,
and gift for gift bestow,
laughter for laughter let him exchange,
but leasing pay for a lie.

To his friend a man should bear him as friend,
to him and a friend of his;
but let him beware that he be not the friend 
of one who is friend to his foe.

Hast thou a friend whom thou trustest well, 
from whom thou cravest good? 
Share thy mind with him, gifts exchange with him, 
fare to find him oft.

But hast thou one whom thou trustest ill 
yet from whom thou cravest good?
Thou shalt speak him fair, but falsely think,
and leasing pay for a lie.

Yet further of him whom thou trusted ill,
and whose mind thou dost misdoubt; 
thou shalt laugh with him but withhold thy thought, 
for gift with like gift should be paid.

Young was I once, I walked alone, 
and bewildered seemed in the way; 
then I found me another and rich I thought me, 
for man is the joy of man.

Most blest is he who lives free and bold
and nurses never a grief,
for the fearful man is dismayed by aught,
and the mean one mourns over giving.

My garments once I gave in the field
to two land-marks made as men; 
heroes they seemed when once they were clothed; 
'tis the naked who suffer shame!

The pine tree wastes which is perched on the hill, 
nor bark nor needles shelter it; 
such is the man whom none doth love; 
for what should he longer live?

Fiercer than fire among ill friends 
for five days love will burn; 
bun anon 'tis quenched, when the sixth day comes, 
and all friendship soon is spoiled.

Not great things alone must one give to another, 
praise oft is earned for nought;
with half a loaf and a tilted bowl 
I have found me many a friend.

Little the sand if little the seas, 
little are minds of men, 
for ne'er in the world were all equally wise, 
'tis shared by the fools and the sage.

Wise in measure let each man be;
but let him not wax too wise; 
for never the happiest of men is he
who knows much of many things.

Wise in measure should each man be; 
but let him not wax too wise;
seldom a heart will sing with joy 
if the owner be all too wise.

Wise in measure should each man be, 
but ne'er let him wax too wise:
who looks not forward to learn his fate
unburdened heart will bear.

Brand kindles from brand until it be burned,
spark is kindled from spark,
man unfolds him by speech with man, 
but grows over secret through silence.

He must rise betimes who fain of another 
or life or wealth would win;
scarce falls the prey to sleeping wolves,
or to slumberers victory in strife.

He must rise betimes who hath few to serve him, 
and see to his work himself; 
who sleeps at morning is hindered much, 
to the keen is wealth half-won.

Of dry logs saved and roof-bark stored
a man can know the measure, 
of fire-wood too which should last him out
quarter and half years to come.

Fed and washed should one ride to court 
though in garments none too new; 
thou shalt not shame thee for shoes or breeks, 
nor yet for a sorry steed.

Like an eagle swooping over old ocean, 
snatching after his prey, 
so comes a man into court who finds 
there are few to defend his cause.

Each man who is wise and would wise be called 
must ask and answer aright. 
Let one know thy secret, but never a second, --
if three a thousand shall know.

A wise counselled man will be mild in bearing
and use his might in measure,
lest when he come his fierce foes among
he find others fiercer than he.

Each man should be watchful and wary in speech,
and slow to put faith in a friend.
for the words which one to another speaks
he may win reward of ill.

At many a feast I was far too late,
and much too soon at some;
drunk was the ale or yet unserved: 
never hits he the joint who is hated.

Here and there to a home I had haply been asked
had I needed no meat at my meals,
or were two hams left hanging in the house of that friend 
where I had partaken of one.

Most dear is fire to the sons of men, 
most sweet the sight of the sun;
good is health if one can but keep it,
and to live a life without shame.

Not reft of all is he who is ill, 
for some are blest in their bairns,
some in their kin and some in their wealth,
and some in working well.

More blest are the living than the lifeless,
'tis the living who come by the cow;
I saw the hearth-fire burn in the rich man's hall
and himself lying dead at the door.

The lame can ride horse, the handless drive cattle, 
the deaf one can fight and prevail,
'tis happier for the blind than for him on the bale-fire,
but no man hath care for a corpse.

Best have a son though he be late born 
and before him the father be dead:
seldom are stones on the wayside raised
save by kinsmen to kinsmen.

Two are hosts against one, the tongue is the head's bane,
'neath a rough hide a hand may be hid;
he is glad at nightfall who knows of his lodging, 
short is the ship's berth, 
and changeful the autumn night,
much veers the wind ere the fifth day 
and blows round yet more in a month.

He that learns nought will never know
how one is the fool of another, 
for if one be rich another is poor 
and for that should bear no blame.

Cattle die and kinsmen die,
thyself too soon must die, 
but one thing never, I ween, will die, -- 
fair fame of one who has earned.

Cattle die and kinsmen die, 
thyself too soon must die, 
but one thing never, I ween, will die, -- 
the doom on each one dead.

Full-stocked folds had the Fatling's sons, 
who bear now a beggar's staff:
brief is wealth, as the winking of an eye,
most faithless ever of friends.

If haply a fool should find for himself 
wealth or a woman's love, 
pride waxes in him but wisdom never
and onward he fares in his folly.

All will prove true that thou askest of runes -- 
those that are come from the gods, 
which the high Powers wrought, and which Odin painted: 
then silence is surely best.

  Maxims for All Men 80.
Praise day at even, a wife when dead,
a weapon when tried, a maid when married,
ice when 'tis crossed, and ale when 'tis drunk.

Hew wood in wind, sail the seas in a breeze,
woo a maid in the dark, -- for day's eyes are many, --
work a ship for its gliding, a shield for its shelter,
a sword for its striking, a maid for her kiss;

Drink ale by the fire, but slide on the ice;
buy a steed when 'tis lanky, a sword when 'tis rusty;
feed thy horse neath a roof, and thy hound in the yard.

The speech of a maiden should no man trust
nor the words which a woman says;
for their hearts were shaped on a whirling wheel
and falsehood fixed in their breasts.

Breaking bow, or flaring flame,
ravening wolf, or croaking raven,
routing swine, or rootless tree,
waxing wave, or seething cauldron,

flying arrows, or falling billow,
ice of a nighttime, coiling adder,
woman's bed-talk, or broken blade,
play of bears or a prince's child,

sickly calf or self-willed thrall,
witch's flattery, new-slain foe,
brother's slayer, though seen on the highway,
half burned house, or horse too swift --
be never so trustful as these to trust.

Let none put faith in the first sown fruit
nor yet in his son too soon;
whim rules the child, and weather the field,
each is open to chance.

Like the love of women whose thoughts are lies
is the driving un-roughshod o'er slippery ice
of a two year old, ill-tamed and gay;
or in a wild wind steering a helmless ship,
or the lame catching reindeer in the rime-thawed fell.

  Lessons for Lovers 89.
Now plainly I speak, since both I have seen;
unfaithful is man to maid;
we speak them fairest when thoughts are falsest
and wile the wisest of hearts.

-- Let him speak soft words and offer wealth
who longs for a woman's love,
praise the shape of the shining maid --
he wins who thus doth woo.

-- Never a whit should one blame another
whom love hath brought into bonds:
oft a witching form will fetch the wise
which holds not the heart of fools.

Never a whit should one blame another
for a folly which many befalls;
the might of love makes sons of men
into fools who once were wise.

The mind knows alone what is nearest the heart
and sees where the soul is turned:
no sickness seems to the wise so sore
as in nought to know content.

  Odin's Love Quests 94.
This once I felt when I sat without
in the reeds, and looked for my love;
body and soul of me was that sweet maiden
yet never I won her as wife.

Billing's daughter I found on her bed,
fairer than sunlight sleeping,
and the sweets of lordship seemed to me nought,
save I lived with that lovely form.

"Yet nearer evening come thou, Odin,
if thou wilt woo a maiden:
all were undone save two knew alone
such a secret deed of shame."

So away I turned from my wise intent,
and deemed my joy assured,
for all her liking and all her love
I weened that I yet should win.

When I came ere long the war troop bold
were watching and waking all:
with burning brands and torches borne
they showed me my sorrowful way.

Yet nearer morning I went, once more, --
the housefolk slept in the hall,
but soon I found a barking dog
tied fast to that fair maid's couch.

Many a sweet maid when one knows her mind
is fickle found towards men:
I proved it well when that prudent lass
I sought to lead astray:
shrewd maid, she sought me with every insult
and I won therewith no wife.

  Odin's Quest after the Song Mead 101.
In thy home be joyous and generous to guests
discreet shalt thou be in thy bearing,
mindful and talkative, wouldst thou gain wisdom,
oft making me mention of good.
He is "Simpleton" named who has nought to say,
for such is the fashion of fools.

I sought that old Jötun, now safe am I back,
little served my silence there;
but whispering many soft speeches I won
my desire in Suttung's halls.

I bored me a road there with Rati's tusk
and made room to pass through the rock;
while the ways of the Jötuns stretched over and under,
I dared my life for a draught.

'Twas Gunnlod who gave me on a golden throne
a draught of the glorious mead,
but with poor reward did I pay her back
for her true and troubled heart.

In a wily disguise I worked my will;
little is lacking to the wise,
for the Soul-stirrer now, sweet Mead of Song,
is brought to men's earthly abode.

I misdoubt me if ever again I had come
from the realms of the Jötun race,
had I not served me of Gunnlod, sweet woman,
her whom I held in mine arms.

Came forth, next day, the dread Frost Giants,
and entered the High One's Hall:
they asked -- was the Baleworker back mid the Powers,
or had Suttung slain him below?

A ring-oath Odin I trow had taken --
how shall one trust his troth?
'twas he who stole the mead from Suttung,
and Gunnlod caused to weep.

  The Counseling of the Stray-Singer 109.
'Tis time to speak from the Sage's Seat;
hard by the Well of Weird
I saw and was silent, I saw and pondered,
I listened to the speech of men.

Of runes they spoke, and the reading of runes
was little withheld from their lips:
at the High One's hall, in the High One's hall,
I thus heard the High One say: --

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
rise never at nighttime, except thou art spying
or seekest a spot without.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
thou shalt never sleep in the arms of a sorceress,
lest she should lock thy limbs;

So shall she charm that thou shalt not heed
the council, or words of the king,
nor care for thy food, or the joys of mankind,
but fall into sorrowful sleep.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
seek not ever to draw to thyself
in love-whispering another's wife.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
should thou long to fare over fell and firth
provide thee well with food.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
tell not ever an evil man
if misfortunes thee befall,
from such ill friend thou needst never seek
return for thy trustful mind.

Wounded to death, have I seen a man
by the words of an evil woman;
a lying tongue had bereft him of life,
and all without reason of right.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
hast thou a friend whom thou trustest well,
fare thou to find him oft;
for with brushwood grows and with grasses high
the path where no foot doth pass.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
in sweet converse call the righteous to thy side,
learn a healing song while thou livest.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
be never the first with friend of thine
to break the bond of fellowship;
care shall gnaw thy heart if thou canst not tell
all thy mind to another.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
never in speech with a foolish knave
shouldst thou waste a single word.

From the lips of such thou needst not look
for reward of thine own good will;
but a righteous man by praise will render thee
firm in favour and love.

There is mingling in friendship when man can utter
all his whole mind to another;
there is nought so vile as a fickle tongue;
no friend is he who but flatters.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
oft the worst lays the best one low.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
be not a shoemaker nor yet a shaft maker
save for thyself alone:
let the shoe be misshapen, or crooked the shaft,
and a curse on thy head will be called.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
when in peril thou seest thee, confess thee in peril,
nor ever give peace to thy foes.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
rejoice not ever at tidings of ill,
but glad let thy soul be in good.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
look not up in battle, when men are as beasts,
lest the wights bewitch thee with spells.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
wouldst thou win joy of a gentle maiden,
and lure to whispering of love,
thou shalt make fair promise, and let it be fast, --
none will scorn their weal who can win it.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
I pray thee be wary, yet not too wary,
be wariest of all with ale,
with another's wife, and a third thing eke,
that knaves outwit thee never.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
hold not in scorn, nor mock in thy halls
a guest or wandering wight.

They know but unsurely who sit within
what manner of man is come:
none is found so good, but some fault attends him,
or so ill but he serves for somewhat.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
hold never in scorn the hoary singer;
oft the counsel of the old is good;
come words of wisdom from the withered lips
of him left to hang among hides,
to rock with the rennets
and swing with the skins.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
growl not at guests, nor drive them from the gate
but show thyself gentle to the poor.

Mighty is the bar to be moved away
for the entering in of all.
Shower thy wealth, or men shall wish thee
every ill in thy limbs.

I counsel thee, Stray-Singer, accept my counsels,
they will be thy boon if thou obey'st them,
they will work thy weal if thou win'st them:
when ale thou quaffest, call upon earth's might --
'tis earth drinks in the floods.
Earth prevails o'er drink, but fire o'er sickness,
the oak o'er binding, the earcorn o'er witchcraft,
the rye spur o'er rupture, the moon o'er rages,
herb o'er cattle plagues, runes o'er harm.

  Odin's Quest after the Runes 137.
I trow I hung on that windy Tree
nine whole days and nights,
stabbed with a spear, offered to Odin,
myself to mine own self given,
high on that Tree of which none hath heard
from what roots it rises to heaven.

None refreshed me ever with food or drink,
I peered right down in the deep;
crying aloud I lifted the Runes
then back I fell from thence.

Nine mighty songs I learned from the great
son of Bale-thorn, Bestla's sire;
I drank a measure of the wondrous Mead,
with the Soulstirrer's drops I was showered.

Ere long I bare fruit, and throve full well,
I grew and waxed in wisdom;
word following word, I found me words,
deed following deed, I wrought deeds.

Hidden Runes shalt thou seek and interpreted signs,
many symbols of might and power,
by the great Singer painted, by the high Powers fashioned,
graved by the Utterer of gods.

For gods graved Odin, for elves graved Daïn,
Dvalin the Dallier for dwarfs,
All-wise for Jötuns, and I, of myself,
graved some for the sons of men.

Dost know how to write, dost know how to read,
dost know how to paint, dost know how to prove,
dost know how to ask, dost know how to offer,
dost know how to send, dost know how to spend?

Better ask for too little than offer too much,
like the gift should be the boon;
better not to send than to overspend.
Thus Odin graved ere the world began;
Then he rose from the deep, and came again.

  The Song of Spells 145.
Those songs I know, which nor sons of men 
nor queen in a king's court knows;
the first is Help which will bring thee help
in all woes and in sorrow and strife.

A second I know, which the son of men
must sing, who would heal the sick.

A third I know: if sore need should come
of a spell to stay my foes;
when I sing that song, which shall blunt their swords,
nor their weapons nor staves can wound.

A fourth I know: if men make fast
in chains the joints of my limbs, 
when I sing that song which shall set me free,
spring the fetters from hands and feet.

A fifth I know: when I see, by foes shot,
speeding a shaft through the host,
flies it never so strongly I still can stay it,
if I get but a glimpse of its flight.

A sixth I know: when some thane would harm me
in runes on a moist tree's root,
on his head alone shall light the ills
of the curse that he called upon mine.

A seventh I know: if I see a hall
high o'er the bench-mates blazing,
flame it ne'er so fiercely I still can save it, --
I know how to sing that song.

An eighth I know: which all can sing
for their weal if they learn it well;
where hate shall wax 'mid the warrior sons,
I can calm it soon with that song.

A ninth I know: when need befalls me
to save my vessel afloat,
I hush the wind on the stormy wave,
and soothe all the sea to rest.

A tenth I know: when at night the witches 
ride and sport in the air,
such spells I weave that they wander home
out of skins and wits bewildered.

An eleventh I know: if haply I lead
my old comrades out to war,
I sing 'neath the shields, and they fare forth mightily
safe into battle,
safe out of battle,
and safe return from the strife.

A twelfth I know: if I see in a tree
a corpse from a halter hanging,
such spells I write, and paint in runes,
that the being descends and speaks.

A thirteenth I know: if the new-born son
of a warrior I sprinkle with water,
that youth will not fail when he fares to war,
never slain shall he bow before sword.

A fourteenth I know: if I needs must number
the Powers to the people of men,
I know all the nature of gods and of elves
which none can know untaught.

A fifteenth I know, which Folk-stirrer sang,
the dwarf, at the gates of Dawn;
he sang strength to the gods, and skill to the elves,
and wisdom to Odin who utters.

A sixteenth I know: when all sweetness and love
I would win from some artful wench,
her heart I turn, and the whole mind change
of that fair-armed lady I love.

A seventeenth I know: so that e'en the shy maiden
is slow to shun my love.

These songs, Stray-Singer, which man's son knows not,
long shalt thou lack in life,
though thy weal if thou win'st them, thy boon if thou obey'st them
thy good if haply thou gain'st them.

An eighteenth I know: which I ne'er shall tell
to maiden or wife of man
save alone to my sister, or haply to her
who folds me fast in her arms;
most safe are secrets known to but one-
the songs are sung to an end.

Now the sayings of the High One are uttered in the hall
for the weal of men, for the woe of Jötuns,
Hail, thou who hast spoken! Hail, thou that knowest!
Hail, ye that have hearkened! Use, thou who hast learned!

Source: The Elder or Poetic Edda, commonly known as Sæmund's Edda, part I: The Mythological Poems, edited and translated by Olive Bray (London: Printed for the Viking Club, 1908), pp. 61-111.

... Source

Also read: Speech of the High One (Poetic Edda)

--- Read the rest ---

The Norse Calendar

Tue, 08/01/2017 - 09:54

This week we are entering Haustmánuðr, which is the sixth and last summer month according to the old Norse calendar. The old Icelandic calendar states that Haustmánuðr starts on Thursday in the 23rd week of summer (1), which would translate to right before or around mid-September to mid-October in the Julian calendar, and toward the end of September in the Gregorian calendar. Haustmánuðr means "the month of harvest/fall", but I have seen it called by several other descriptive names, such as Garðlagsmánuðr (2) - signifying that it is the time to fix up the fences and walls around the farm. 

I occasionally hear of the old names of the months, as some of the celebrations and traditions are still being kept alive in Iceland today, across and regardless of religious beliefs. This may be due to the country using the old calendar alongside the Julian calendar after the Christianization up to year 1200, possibly due to several of the laws being directly linked to its content (3), as well as the peculiar and gradual process of the Christianization of Iceland (4-6). Furthermore, the old names of the months were used much longer in the language, and the Latin names were not adopted into the common tongue until the late 18th century (7). 

I would like to write a bit about the Norse calendar, and below I have drawn it up as compared to the modern Gregorian calendar (3), in order to make it easier to visualize.

The old Norse calendar was divided into two seasons, summer and winter. Each season had 6 months, with 30 days each (lunar phases). Summer months were Harpa, Skerpla, Sólmánuðr, Heyannir, Tvímánuðr and Haustmánuðr, and the winter months Gormánuðr, Ýlir, Mǫrsugr, Þorri, Góa and Einmánuðr

The 12 months of 30 days each account for 360 days. In the middle of summer (between Sólmánuðr og Heyannir) 4 additional days, not belonging to any specific month, were added. At the end of summer however, two of what would have been the first winter nights were counted into the last summer month. Summer months would thus start on a Thursday, and winter months would start on a Saturday. Like today, a year consisted of 52 weeks, and to make up for the divergence with the solar year, an additional week was added at the end of summer every 7th year (4), called sumarauki, literally meaning "summer addition". In Landnámabók (The Book of Settlements) we can read that "Hallsteinn átti Ósku, dóttur Þorsteins rauðs. Þeira sonr var Þorsteinn surtr, er fann sumarauka", roughly translated to "Hallsteinn had Ósk, daughter of Þorstein the red. Their son was Þorsteinn surtr, who invented the summer addition" (8). 

Although seemingly complicated at first glance, I do not find the old Norse system to be particularly more so than the Julian or Gregorian systems, where names of months were changed according to the deeds and victories of emperors, and with length varying between 28-31 days, leap-years and so forth... 

It is however deemed unlikely that the days in the old Norse calendar were counted very accurately, especially in the northernmost areas where the sun barely sets during the mid-summer months. Time was counted in weeks of (or weeks left of) summer or winter rather than with numbered days, and years were not counted by an absolute chronology (3). Each of the two seasons was called a "misseri", and the calendar was thus a misseristal (counting of misseris) (9). There are to my knowledge no known accounts of specific "New Years celebrations" in the Viking Age, but the new year is believed to have commenced with the first summer month (10). This is mainly based on the fact that ones lifetime was measured in the number of winters lived, an expression still used in some contexts today (for example, the age of livestock is stated in the number of winters the animal has lived through). The first day of summer was a festive day, and remains a public holiday in Iceland, falling on the first day of Harpa (first Thursday after April 18th). 

--- Further reading and sources ---

Medieval Pet Names

Tue, 08/01/2017 - 07:39

People in the Middle Ages did keep pets – dogs, cats, birds, monkeys and many other kinds of animals. Although they often had particular duties – i.e. hunting or catching rats – there are many accounts that showed affection and love between these pets and their owners.

Scattered in various texts and remains from the Middle Ages, and the research by Kathleen Walker-Meikle has uncovered several examples of medieval pet names:

Medieval Dog Names

In England we find dogs that were named Sturdy, Whitefoot, Hardy, Jakke, Bo and Terri. Anne Boleyn, one of the wives of King Henry VIII, had a dog named Purkoy, who got its name from the French ‘pourquoi’ because it was very inquisitive.

Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Nun’s Priest Tale has a line where they name three dogs: Colle, Talbot and Gerland. Meanwhile, in the early fifteenth-century, Edward, Duke of York, wrote The Master of Game, which explains how dogs are to be used in hunting and taken care of. He also included a list of 1100 names that he thought would be appropriate for hunting dogs. They include Troy, Nosewise, Amiable, Nameles, Clenche, Bragge, Ringwood and Holdfast.

Meanwhile, in Switzerland a list of 80 dogs that took part in a shooting festival in the year 1504 has been preserved. They reveal the most popular name was Furst (Prince). Other names included Venus, Fortuna, and Turgk. Some dogs got their names from the work being done by their owners: Hemmerli (Little Hammer) belonged to a locksmith, while Speichli (Little Spoke) belonged to a wagoner.

The 14th century French knight Jehan de Seure had a hound named Parceval, while his wife had Dyamant. Leon Battista Alberti, the Renaissance philosopher, said his dog was sired by Megastomo (Big Mouth). Ludovico III Gonzaga, ruler of the city of Mantua from 1444 to 1478, has at least two dogs – Rubino and Bellina. When Rubino died, Ludovico ordered that he buried in a casket and that he would make sure that the animal would also get a tombstone. Isabella d’Este, a famous Italian lady and also a ruler of Mantua, was known to have many little dogs, two of which were named Aura and Mamia.

There is also the story of Guinefort, the saint dog – in the 13th century Stephen de Bourbon explains that the peasants near the French city of Lyons were saying prayers at the grave of a dog named Guinefort and reporting that he was doing miracles, especially for infants. He inquired with the peasants and learned this story:

There was a certain castle whose lord had a baby son from his wife. But when the lord and lady and the nurse too had left the house, leaving the child alone in his cradle, a very large snake entered the house and made for the child’s cradle. The greyhound, who had remained there, saw this, dashed swiftly under the cradle in pursuit, knocking it over, and attacked the snake with its fangs and answering bite with bite. In the end the dog killed it and threw it far away from the child’s cradle which he left all bloodied as was his mouth and head, with the snake’s blood, and stood there by the cradle all beaten about by the snake. When the nurse came back and saw this, she thought the child had been killed and eaten by the dog and so gave out an almighty scream. The child’s mother heard this, rushed in, saw and thought the same and she too screamed. Then the knight similarly once he got there believed the same, and drawing his sword killed the dog. Only then did they approach the child and find him unharmed, sleeping sweetly in fact. On further investigation, they discovered the snake torn up by the dog’s bites and dead. Now that they had learned the truth of the matter, they were embarrassed that they had so unjustly killed a dog so useful to them and threw his body into a well in front of the castle gate, and placing over it a very large heap of stones they planted trees nearby as a memorial of the deed.

Medieval Cat Names

In medieval England domestic cats were known as Gyb – the short form of of Gilbert –  and that name was also popular for individual pet cats. Meanwhile in France they were called Tibers or Tibert was generic name fo domestic cat in France – Tibert the Cat was one of the characters in the Reynard the Fox animal fables.

Other names for cats included Mite, who prowled around Beaulieu Abbey in the 13th century, and Belaud, a grey cat belonging to Joachim du Bellay in the 16th century. Isabella d’Este also owned a cat named Martino. Old Irish legal texts refer to several individual cats and names them: Meone (little meow); Cruibne (little paws); Breone (little flame, perhaps an orange cat), and Glas nenta (nettle grey). An Irish poem from the ninth century describes how a monk owned a cat named Pangur Bán, which meant ‘fuller white’. The poem begins:

I and Pangur Bán, my cat
‘Tis a like task we are at;
Hunting mice is his delight
Hunting words I sit all night.

--- Further reading and sources ---

The Buddhas Among Vikings

Mon, 07/31/2017 - 21:10

This 6th century Buddha statuette from North India was found in an old Viking trading town on Helgö Island in Lake Mälaren, Sweden. During the excavation of the Oseberg ship one so-called “Buddha bucket” was found. The findings illustrate that the Vikings traded over vast distances and had to deal with many different cultures and religions.

The statuette on Helgö Island was found along with an Irish crosier and an Egyptian Coptic christening ladle. The first archaeological excavation in 1954 uncovered the remains of the early settlement dating back as far as 200 AD. The small statuette and the christening ladle were both dating from the 6th century.

The Helgö Island Buddha (Photo: Swedish History Museum, Stockholm)

The so-called “Buddha bucket” found in the Oseberg ship got its name from a brass and enamel ornament of a bucket handle in the shape of a figure sitting with crossed legs. The bucket is made from yew wood, held together with brass strips, and the handle is attached to two anthropomorphic figures compared to depictions of the Buddha in the lotus posture.

Explored the World

In the period 8th to 11th century the Vikings traveled throughout the known and unknown world where they trough trade and warfare met new cultures and religions: From Greenland and Vinland (North America) in the west, Miklagard (Constantinople) and India in the East, to Blåland (English: “Blue Land”, meaning Africa) in the south.

With the battle axe in one hand, they had to deal with people who had a different culture, language, and color and that believed in other gods than themselves: Christians, Muslims, Buddhists and tribes that followed natural religions.

The Oseberg ship “Buddha bucket”. (Photo: Saamiblog/ Wikimedia Commons) --- Read the rest ---

Have Heart; For We are on the Cusp of a Great Cultural Revolution

Sat, 07/29/2017 - 00:05
Storm in the Rocky Mountains, by Albert Bierstadt, 1886

The times in which we are living are more polarizing than ever in recent memory. Thus, people are separated by extremes, reactivity, and heated emotion.  But, at the same time, a Great Awakening is under way, and it is important to highlight some important points, re-calibrate, and focus our directive moving forward. 

Why Are So Many "White People" Angry? Making TV shows disparaging white people is not racist, it's mainstream.

It behooves is to veer a little into the political sphere that I typically avoid in my writing because many people are either unaware or completely misinformed by the exploding shift that has occurred over the past couple of years, and many just can't make heads nor tails of it.

My assessment is that the formerly dominant political agenda had been pushed with ever increasing frequency, intensity, and hostility until which point that it over-saturated society to the degree that many people, myself and many of you reading this, became exceedingly frustrated. Meanwhile, rhetoric coming out of the mouths of people promoting mainstream views were becoming increasingly hateful forward ethnic-Europeans and disparaging about Western culture. 

This isn't racist. But saying the same thing inserting "black" instead of "white" would be.

White men, in particular, have been made targets of horrific hate speech. It's become the norm for college professors and mainstream media figures to blame all of the ills of society upon "white men" and make disparaging remarks about congress or other institutions that are run by "old white men." It had been reported that leaders in the Black Lives Matter movement had been posting horrific things on social media, such as "kill all white babies." 

We had seen white people targeted for abuse, physical attacks, and even rape, by non-white perpetrators who had been heard saying that they were targeting their victim because they were white. One of the rapists was reported to have actually said "this is payback for slavery!" as he raped his white victim. And all the while, the local police forces and judges dealing with this crimes had state that they do not count as racially motivated hate crimes.

This is not hate speech. But questioning whether we should let these people come into our countries is.

Of course, this was all occurring at the very same time that mass terror attacks had been occurring all throughout the West on a large scale. These attacks are by and large all being carried out by one particular demographic.  This self same demographic rallies in the streets of London carrying signs that say "DEATH TO BRITAIN." But, that is also not considered a hate crime or hate speech. However, merely observing that this group is literally killing us in massive numbers IS a hate crime. 

Furthermore, it has been reported that in multiple cities in Europe, this same demographic has been operating sex gangs where ethnic-European girls and women are groomed and targeted for prostitution.  Thousands of little girls have been abused, raped, and then threatened and beaten if they try to escape. These men have been recorded saying such things as "white women exist to be our whores." But that is not considered hate speech. 

So, for those who do not understand the rise of far right populist politics, I would urge you to take a more honest look at the situation in which we find ourselves. And I would urge you to look at yourself if you are one of these people who throws around the word "racist" at every person who is legitimately angry about what is happening in our nations. Why is it racist to not want our little girls raped? Why is it racist to point a figure squarely at the group committing these horrific crimes at statistically astronomically higher rates than other groups? Why is it racist to demand that we re-assess our immigration policies to address the statistical realities of certain demographics that we are inviting into our shires? Why is it racist to have the desire to protect ourselves and preserve our cultural inheritance?

Take Your Head Our of Your Arse & Just Be Honest

The bottom line is that more and more people every day are breaking the social programmingand realizing that these issues are REAL and that addressing them is not racist at all - it's simply common sense

But, when we have this psychological breakthrough and at the same time we see "kill whitey" being used with impunity in the mainstream, it naturally makes us angry. When we are called racists for speaking out on legitimate issues, it naturally makes us frustrated. And so, there has been an understandable and large-scale reaction. I have been a party to it, and many of you have as well. 

One by one we are breaking our conditioning and waking up.

Knee jerk reactions fueled by high emotion do not represent us at our best. Nor do they represent our views when they have been fully processed and reasoned. In these moments of reactivity, we say heated things that we might scale back, temper, and frame much differently when we're speaking with calm rationality. I am guilty of this. And, what we're seeing right now is an entire movement populated with thousands of other people who are also guilty of it. ​

The Alt-Right is a Reactive Movement

And, this reactive explosion has been natural and needed. The mainstream order will not be adjusted if it is not violently shaken up. However, now that we've had our collective outburst of raw emotion, now that we've really built the makings of a real movement that has the real potential to reshape our societies and change the course we had been pushed down, it is time take control of our movement and shape it into one that is guided by integrity and honor

Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1818

While there are some figures within the movement who are attempting to derail it and guide our people down a destructive path, there are many others of high caliber who have much to offer in terms of their high intelligence, their knowledge, and their positive energy

In addition, we're seeing people with their technical, speaking, and writing skills begin to launch websites, alternative news, publications, film, and all manner of media to provide outlets for discussion and dissemination of information.

​When certain crowd funding and artist funding websites have censored individuals for their unconventional views, now we're seeing our own people band together and put their heads together to begin to launch alternatives. 

We Are Taking Control of Our Destiny

In essence, we have moved from the reactive and angry phase into the phase where we are taking control of the situation.

​This is massive. This is far more profound than you think. What this is is literally a Great Awakening of our Folk. This is a tapping into our Collective Cultural Unconscious.Together, we are all linking in to the spirits of our ancestors who are guiding us for our Great Last Stand. We are using our skills and our talents to do something about our fate

​A cabal of globalist elites has a very dark future in store for us, and it is their agenda that has been guiding our media and education for several decades now. But, we are NOT willing to go like sheep to the slaughter. We are NOT willing see the cultures of our ancestors washed away. ALL of the people of this world have a right to protect and preserve their cultural heritage. 

This Awakening is for ALL People in the World

This awakening is not restricted to ethnic-Europeans. I have long said that the West would be used as a launchpad to move East, and if you are paying attention then you know that the same attacks on culture that have been underway in the West are beginning in the East now.  I speak frequently with Indian Hindus on this topic. I have spoken with Afghanis and Iranians about this. Mexicans and Chinese people have come to me to say that they see and understand exactly what the situation is. 

Leftists are now lecturing Asians about their drive to preserve their ethno-cultures.

Preservation of ethnic-European culture is not racist. The globalist agenda which wants to destroy ALL diversity in the world is racist. Those who say that the English don't have a right to preserve England, and Germans don't have a right to preserve Germany in the exact same way that the South Koreans and Japanese preserve their ethno-culture are the racists. Those who are trying to say that there is no such thing as ethnic-English and ethnic-German are the racists. I'm here to tell you that ethnic-European distinctions deserve the same recognition, respect, and right to self-protection that ethnic-East Asians assert in their own nations. 

The Great Awakening is Upon Us!

So, that so many of our Folk are not only realizing this, but that we have moved beyond the reactive phase and into the action phase is crucial. The Great Awakening is upon us now. And while we disseminate information through our own self-created venues, we must also make an initiative to revive our cultural arts

We in the West have an incredible legacy to be proud of.  While these cultural Marxists sneer at "old white men," instead we must look to our glorious past and remind everyone of the greatness that our Folk have been capable of. While the globalists push destruction of our culture, we must face it by celebrating our culture with more gusto than ever before. When they misrepresent our history, we must tell our OWN story with pride

Today, together, we are taking a stand and making a pledgeWe WILL use all of our talents and skills to preserve, protect, and promote the beautiful diversity on this Earth by defending our OWN cultural heritage. And we respect the right of others to do the same. Western cultural revolution starts now.

Article written by Carolyn Emerick posted with permission.

Please help Carolyn Emerick by supporting her work by becoming a patreon here:

Also be sure to connect with her through her website

--- Further reading and sources ---

Music of the week: Danheim - Grípir (Shamanic Viking Music)

Fri, 07/28/2017 - 20:52

Every week Odin's Eye Media features a song we've been enjoying.

Here is this weeks featured music of the week.

Danheim - Grípir (Shamanic Viking Music)

Band: Danheim
Song: Grípir

Music of the week page on Odin's Eye Media

Want your music to be featured?

We're always looking for new music to listen to and feature. If you go to our Music of the Week page on the site and feel your music would fit in with what we're looking for let us know.

The Is (Isa) Rune - video - Original 3D animated video

Fri, 07/28/2017 - 20:37

Finalizing with our 3d animated videos describing the runes - here we have the latest in runes... The Is (Isa) Rune .

Below is the next video Odin's Eye has created in the series. The interpretations are by Horik Svensson from his book, "The Runes". They are for runecasting and peering into them in shamanic ways.


The Is (Isa) Rune


There are more to come. When all done, they'll be combined to create one single film on the Runes.

How do you interpret the runes? How do you use them? Odin's Eye is going to explore this and more.


The other runes so far:  

Thanks for watching. Hail the gods! Hail the ancestors! Hail the folk!

  • Heathen Howl


The Meaning of Lughnasadh for Neo-Pagans

Fri, 07/28/2017 - 20:12

In Belarus, people celebrate the summer festival of Kupula by placing candle offerings into the river. Although practiced by Orthodox Christians, the festival is inspired by ancient pagan rituals.

On August 1st, Neo-Pagans in the Northern Hemisphere celebrate High Summer, also called “Lughnasadh” (after an ancient Irish festival) and “First Fruits”, because this is the time when many fruits and vegetables begin to ripen. 

  Love and Death in the Summertime

High Summer is the time when many Neo-Pagans celebrate the love of the Goddess and the God who represent the powers of nature. The heat of the sun is the reflection of the passion of the Neo-Pagan God and Goddess.  This is the day when the heat of their passion grows so hot that the God is actually consumed by its flames.  Since this is the middle of summer this is also the beginning of the end of summer.  This is the moment when the flower of summer is blossoming at its fullest, and tomorrow it will begin to wilt.

As we are always changing, so are the Neo-Pagan God and Goddess.  All through the year, since he was born at the winter solstice, the Neo-Pagan God has been maturing, until he reached the peak of his strength at the summer solstice in June.  But everything and everyone that fulfills its purpose must change. The Neo-Pagan God embraces the Goddess in love, the love that moves the world.  It is a love that is so complete that all dissolves into ecstasy and death. 

The Neo-Pagan God, sometimes called the “Oak King”, dies in order to be born again at the winter solstice, and to make room for his dark twin aspect, the Holly King, who will begin to grow stronger and stronger as winter approaches.  At the same time, the Goddess begins her transformation from the Summer Queen to the Queen of the Harvest.

  The Fires of Summer

People all over the world burn fires at High Summer, which may seem odd given the heat of the season.  Neo-Pagans sometimes build what is called a “Wicker Man”.  They put together sticks and wood to make it look like a person and decorate it with flowers and green leaves.  Then they burn the wooden figure to represent the sadness of loss and the joy of transformation. In our family, we make wreaths of flowers together, while we eat juicy ripe fruit, and then we burn the wreaths, while reciting these words:

How hard a mistress is Nature,

When with every breath

She births the vagrant summer

But swifter woos his death.

The fires which Neo-Pagans light today symbolize the beginning of the death of the Oak King.  While our fires will go out quickly, the fire of Summer will end more slowly.  Summer will not end and the Oak King will not die until the fall equinox, which happens on September 22nd this year, the day when the light and the dark are equal.  At the fall equinox, the Neo-Pagan God, in his aspect as the Lord of the Harvest, will begin his journey to the Underworld where he will ultimately find rebirth at the winter solstice.

  Letting Go of Summer

High Summer is like fruit which has ripened to the point where it is juiciest and tastiest, but on the next day it will begin to rot.  The meaning of this day is that pleasure is fleeting.  We must enjoy life while we can, knowing that it cannot last forever.  When we see a beautiful flower blossom, we must either leave it, knowing we may never see it again, or pick it, knowing that in doing so we also kill it.

We do not live in an unchanging world. We live in the living, dying, growing, and fading realm of the earth.  Whenever something is completed, we must let it go.  Because the things we love don’t last forever, we love them all the more while they are here.  But letting go of things and people we love is never easy.  High Summer is a time to practice letting go of what is completed and done—whether it is an old possession, a flower, or a part of ourselves.

Letting go of something doesn’t mean just getting rid of it.  When we let go, we allow it to become something different.  A child who lets go of an old toy lets that toy be transformed into a new toy for another child.  A mother or father who lets go of a child that’s grown up lets that child become a man or woman.  We can be both sad for the loss, and happy for the transformation that has taken place.  High Summer is a time to honor both the joy and the sorrow.

--- Further reading and sources ---

Gene Study Suggests Homo Sapiens Migrated into Africa, Not Out of the Continent – Interbreeding with Local Hominins 150,000 Years Ago

Thu, 07/27/2017 - 23:16

A Protein Found in the Saliva Samples of Sub-Saharan Africans Offers Evidence that Strongly Contradicts the ‘Out of Africa’ Theory for Human Origins. Scientists from the University of Buffalo stumbled on the genetic marker for an unknown African interbreeding event while researching the evolution of an important mucin protein called MUC7.

Sub-Saharan Africa has long been considered the birth place of humanity. The region’s Khoisan population is heralded as the oldest known human lineage on Earth, surviving remnants of the population ancestral to all modern humans. The University of Buffalo research program, headed by Omer Gokcumen, Ph.D., assistant professor of biological sciences, and Stefan Ruhl, DDS, Ph.D., a professor of oral biology, has uncovered startling data that potentially displaces Sub-Saharan Africans as being ancestral to all humans.

“Our research traced the evolution of an important mucin protein called MUC7 that is found in saliva,” explains Gokcumen. “When we looked at the history of the gene that codes for the protein, we see the signature of archaic admixture in modern day Sub-Saharan African populations.”

In recent years gene studies have revealed that the ancestors of modern humans in Asia and Europe interbred with other variants of the human family, among these were Neanderthals and Denisovans. The MUC7 research adds to growing evidence that ancient Africans also encountered and interbred with local hominin populations.

“It seems that interbreeding between different early hominin species is not the exception — it’s the norm,” says Omer Gokcumen

During the research, the MUC7 genes within more than 2,500 modern human genomes were examined closely. What they found astonished everyone, a group of genomes from Sub-Saharan Africa presented a variant of MUC7 that was extremely different to versions observed in all other modern human populations.

The Sub-Saharan variant of the gene was so far apart in the results that even Neanderthal and Denisovan MUC7 genes were more closely related to those of non-African modern humans. Neanderthals and Denisovans are both non-African human lineages that lived largely in Asia; there is no evidence that they ever lived in Africa.

“Based on our analysis, the most plausible explanation for this extreme variation is archaic introgression — the introduction of genetic material from a ‘ghost’ species of ancient hominins,” Gokcumen says. “This unknown human relative could be a species that has been discovered, such as a subspecies of Homo erectus, or an undiscovered hominin. We call it a ‘ghost’ species because we don’t have the fossils.”

The team used known mutation rates (molecular clocks) to calculate when the Sub-Saharan Africans had acquired their variant of the MUC7 protein, the result suggested the interbreeding event was close to 150,000 years ago. The genetic analysis also revealed that the Hominin group responsible had been on a separate evolutionary path for around 1.5 to 2 million years.

Homo erectus populations diverged around 2 million years ago, forming distinct groupings in Africa and Asia, this makes it very likely that the ‘ghost population’ were, in fact, descendants of African Homo erectus (also known as Homo ergaster). Asian Homo erectus gave rise to Neanderthals and Denisovans, as well as various other now extinct human forms.

What makes the MUC7 research so exciting, and potentially so very controversial, is that the variation in the protein is unique to Africans, despite that fact that the interbreeding event responsible occurred long before the colonizing of Eurasia.

Human origins researcher, Bruce R. Fenton, sees the University of Buffalo study as yet more evidence that the Out of Africa Theory is wrong, a claim central to his recently published book, The Forgotten Exodus: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution.

“The obvious interpretation of the data in is that a wave of early Homo sapiens migrated out of Southeast Asia and into Africa sometime between 200 – 150 thousand years ago. We have anatomically modern human fossils from this given period already uncovered in China and East Africa. The population that these migrants interbred with is almost certainly AfricanHomo erectus, the dates all fit like a hand in a glove,” says Fenton.

If all modern humans arose from Sub-Saharan Africans migrating out of Africa between 70 – 60 thousand years ago, we should see the same MUC7 protein everywhere. The fact that Sub-Saharan Africans have a unique variant strongly suggests that these populations arrived in Africa after diverging from other Homo sapiens populations elsewhere, most likely in Asia.

Fenton also highlights the similarity observed between the saliva protein in non-Africans and other non-African hominins, “The discovery that non-Africans carry an MUC7 genetic signature far more like that of Neanderthals and Denisovans, very unlike Sub-Saharan Africans, strongly suggests a shared Asian genesis for all three human populations. The likely source population for all of these human lineages would be Asian Homo erectus, and the geographic locations associated with their emergence Australasia and Southeast Asia.”

The Buffalo University research was published on July 21 in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution.

... Source

Also read: New Genetic Studies Confirm: The Ancient Egyptian Kings Were Aryan White, Blonde Haired & Blue Eyed

--- Further reading and sources ---